TEACHER STUFF: helping students break through dualistic thinking into the world of relativistic thinking.

 William Perry's cognitive theory of student development examines nine positions tracing the evolution of traditionally aged students' thinking about the nature of knowledge, truth and values, and meaning of life and responsibilities. Based on Piaget's cognitive development theory, Perry lists steps by which students move from a simplistic, categorical view of the world to a realization of the contingent nature of knowledge, relative values, and the formation and affirmation of one's own commitments. Perry sees change as coming about through cognitive conflict. The scheme portrays three general levels - dualism, relativism, and commitment - and three positions within each level. The three positions in dualism and relativism are considered to be structural stages. The three positions in commitment are affective stages, which describe the process of living through commitments.  More Here.





What is an EBC?



Not-- what you know... but,

How do you know what you know?

EBC is tool requiring for evidence for any answers given or claims made. While feeling may be examined-- claims without evidence are merely "feelings,"  opinions, and beliefs.



You may answer questions using both Fiction and Non-Fiction sources - you must decide on the appropriateness of your evidence.  It changes the conversation to emphasize the quality and limitation of sources.



Evidence Claim Evidence Based Claims:
a tool allowing

for any claim of the truth*

(see the example below).
Where exactly did you get the information that allowed you to make your claim? What I say is the truth.


Is it illegal to remove tags from pillows?

YES  /  NO

This is NOT a one word answer (dualistic)- it requires evidence and can extend into further research into the realm of consumer protection etc.

Explode misconception with evidence:

Partial Evidence Complete Evidence





  1. Make a Claim (It is true that...   OR  It is not true that...)

  2. Support or refute the claim with the best evidence from different sides or perspectives about the claim.   

  3. Use the evidence to come to a conclusion.

  4. Incorporate the claim into an appropriate format for the audience or as directed.






Resources from EngageNY:






EngageNY.org designed to assist educators with the implementation of the Common Core.